Iraq Parliament Passes Amendments Increasing Penalties for Same-Sex Relations

Iraq Parliament Passes Amendments Increasing Penalties for Same-Sex Relations


Iraq's parliament has recently passed amendments to an anti-prostitution law that have sparked widespread controversy and condemnation from human rights groups and international observers. The amendments, which were adopted during a session attended by 170 out of 329 lawmakers, include provisions that significantly increase penalties for same-sex relations and transgender individuals.

Under the newly amended law, same-sex relations are punishable by up to 15 years in prison, a drastic escalation from the previous legal framework. Additionally, transgender individuals face sentences of three years in jail. These measures mark a concerning departure from Iraq's already conservative social norms and have been criticized as a severe attack on human rights.

The amendments also target individuals who "promote" same-sex relations, imposing a minimum seven-year prison term. Furthermore, men who are deemed to "intentionally" act like women may face sentences ranging from one to three years. The law also criminalizes "biological sex change based on personal desire and inclination," penalizing both transgender individuals and medical professionals who perform gender reassignment surgery with up to three years in prison.

These legislative changes come amidst ongoing discrimination and violence against LGBTQ+ individuals in Iraq. Members of the LGBTQ+ community have faced frequent attacks and discrimination, with impunity for perpetrators. Human rights organizations have documented cases of kidnappings, rapes, torture, and murders targeting LGBTQ+ individuals, highlighting the urgent need for legal protections and societal acceptance.

Amnesty International's Iraq researcher, Razaw Salihy, characterized the amendments as a violation of fundamental human rights, stating, "Iraq has effectively codified in law the discrimination and violence members of the LGBTI community have been subjected to with absolute impunity for years." The amendments have further marginalized LGBTQ+ Iraqis, forcing them into the shadows and perpetuating fear within the community.

In addition to targeting individuals, the amended law also cracks down on organizations deemed to "promote" homosexuality, with severe penalties imposed. Furthermore, the law extends its reach to punish "wife swapping" with prison sentences ranging from 10 to 15 years, reflecting broader societal norms and values.

Lawmaker Raed al-Maliki, who played a key role in advancing the amendments, defended the changes as necessary to protect society. However, critics argue that the amendments represent a significant setback for human rights in Iraq, particularly for marginalized communities already facing discrimination and violence.

The passage of the amendments has drawn international criticism, with both the United States and the European Union expressing opposition to the law. A spokesperson for the US State Department stated that the amendments pose a threat to human rights and could hinder Iraq's economic development and foreign investment opportunities. Despite international pressure, Iraqi lawmakers maintain that the amendments are an internal matter and reject external interference.

Human Rights Watch's Iraq researcher, Sarah Sanbar, condemned the amendments as a "horrific development" and an "attack on human rights." Sanbar emphasized that rather than enacting laws to benefit Iraqis, such as domestic violence or child protection laws, Iraq has chosen to codify discrimination against LGBTQ+ individuals.

The amendments reflect a broader trend of increasing anti-LGBTQ+ rhetoric in Iraqi politics and society, contributing to a climate of fear and marginalization for LGBTQ+ individuals. Despite calls for progress and protection of human rights, Iraqi lawmakers have prioritized punitive measures that further stigmatize and discriminate against LGBTQ+ individuals.

In light of these developments, human rights advocates continue to call for greater protections and legal reforms to safeguard the rights and dignity of LGBTQ+ individuals in Iraq. The passage of the amendments underscores the urgent need for action to address discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity, both in Iraq and around the world.


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